Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Thanks to pioneering research and diagnostic tests, we are discovering solutions to detect breast cancer early on. The TKTL1 gene, in particular, represents an incredible leap in our understanding of metabolism and cancer cell growth.

In a new study, researchers investigated the expression of the TKTL1 gene in breast cancer patients and its ability to detect the clinical characteristics of a cancer diagnosis. The TKTL1 gene plays a significant role in a metabolic pathway called the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which contributes to the development of cancer.

Researchers discovered that TKTL1 is truly a game-changer for not only detecting cancer, but also recognizing the stage of cancer, and the aggressiveness of the tumours.


The study involved 50 Iraqi breast cancer patients and 25 healthy individuals as the control group. The researchers used a technique called quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to measure the expression of the TKTL1 gene. They analysed the gene expression levels in relation to the patients’ age, tumour location, tumour type, tumour grade, and tumour stage.


The results showed that the expression of the TKTL1 gene was significantly higher in breast cancer patients compared to the control group. The fold change in gene expression was about 4.6 times higher in breast cancer patients. The gene expression levels did not significantly differ based on age.

Regarding tumour location, the researchers found that the expression of TKTL1 was higher on the right side compared to the left side. There were significant differences in gene expression depending on the tumour site.

The study also revealed that TKTL1 gene expression was higher in Invasive Ductal Carcinomas (IDC) compared to Invasive Lobular Carcinomas (ILC). Moreover, the level of TKTL1 gene expression increased with higher tumour grades, indicating a potential association between TKTL1 expression and tumour aggressiveness.

Furthermore, the expression of the TKTL1 gene varied based on the tumour stage. Patients with stage I and II breast cancer showed higher levels of gene expression compared to the control group.


This study demonstrates that the expression of the TKTL1 gene is significantly increased in Iraqi females with breast cancer. The findings suggest that TKTL1 gene expression may serve as an influential biomarker for the early detection of breast cancer. The study also highlights the importance of considering TKTL1 expression in relation to tumour location, type, grade, and stage, as it may provide valuable insights into the progression and aggressiveness of breast cancer.

Understanding the expression of the TKTL1 gene can contribute to developing targeted therapies and personalized treatment approaches for breast cancer patients.

This has already been proven by the efficacy of the PanTum Detect test, a diagnostic blood test for early cancer detection. The test uses both Apo10 and TKTL1 together to detect malignant and pre-malignant tumours at an early stage.

The conclusion of a 2022 clinical study on PanTum Detect carried out in Germany of over 5,000 asymptomatic subjects, sums up:

“Our results indicate that the PanTum Detect blood test could be used as a screening tool and, in combination with PET/CT and MRI, enables the detection of malignant tumours and pre-malignant lesions at a stage where, in many cases, there is a good chance for a cure.”

TKTL1 is a powerful gene, capable of informing how we diagnose and treat cancer. At RMDM, our work is founded on the holistic study of tumor cell metabolism, influenced by discoveries such as this incredible gene and the Warburg effect.